|Cognitive disparities between US- and foreign-born individuals
|Year of Publication
|JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH-HEIDELBERG
|Type of Article
|Article; Early Access
|Aging, cognitive function, Growth curve modeling, Health and Retirement Study
Aim This study aims to assess whether heterogeneity in cognitive functioning trajectories differ across racial/ethnic and nativity (REN) groups, as well as if gender, level of education, physical comorbidities, history of health behaviors, and functional limitations reflect the processes associated with cumulative advantage (disadvantage), persistent inequality, and age as leveler. Methods The empirical work of this study is based on the 1996-2012 Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Growth curve modeling is used to assess the aims of this study. Results Long-term change in cognitive functioning trajectories are shaped along REN lines. US-born whites have significantly better cognitive function but experience a faster rate of cognitive deterioration than foreign-born whites, as well as foreign- and US-born blacks, Mexicans, other Hispanics, and other racial ethnic groups, even after taking gender, level of education, health behaviors, and the relevant chronic and physical health conditions into account. Conclusion There is a pressing need for more culturally appropriate and culturally adapted programs and preventive strategies that take the cultural, linguistic, and other specific needs and issues of individuals in different REN groups into account. There remains a pressing need for an integrated treatment and screening for physical comorbidities, functional limitations, and cognitive interventions.